A first home defeat since the start of September curtailed the Clarets’ Turf Moor renaissance as the early dismissal of Kieran Trippier made it a bridge too far for Sean Dyche’s men.
Trippier was sent off for handball after just 14 minutes as he blocked a goalbound effort on the line to collect the second red card of his Clarets’ career.
Lee Grant made a fantastic save from the penalty that followed and for long periods there was little to suggest a numerical imbalance as Burnley bravely battled to defy the odds.
Grant saves the spot kick...
But a 69th-minute header from Danny Haynes was enough for Charlton to continue their impressive run away from the Valley as they became the first team to stop Burnley scoring at Turf Moor this season.
With the Clarets looking to build on their recent record of three successive home wins they had chances to draw first blood before being forced to re-group following the dismissal of Trippier.
A poor clearance from Addicks goalkeeper Ben Hamer after just nine minutes presented Chris McCann with a sight of goal he was unable to capitalise on as he lifted his long-range effort over an unguarded target.
And a well crafted attack then ended with Trippier crossing for Austin to head into the side netting as he climbed above former Burnley defender Leon Cort.
Unfortunately for Trippier, though, that proved to be his last foray forward as a couple of minutes later his afternoon was brought to an abrupt end.
With the Clarets caught out on the break, Chris Solly's shot struck Trippier on the arm as he blocked on the line before Haynes headed against the bar.
Intent looked negligible but the prevention of a goal was enough for referee Robert Madley to reach for his red card and reduce the Clarets to ten men for the first time this season.
The damage was limited by Grant’s superb save as he went low to his right to turn Johnnie Jackson’s spot-kick around the post.
But Dyche was forced to re-shuffle as Dean Marney went to right-back to reprise the role he had filled in his early days at Tottenham Hotspur.
That reduced Burnley’s options further up the field but the Clarets still enjoyed a decent spell with Brian Stock, who again impressed, forcing Hamer into a flying save with a superbly struck half-volley from 30 yards before Michael Duff's header from the corner that followed was blocked on the line.
Charlton looked unsure of how to press home their numerical advantage but finished the first half strongly as they almost went ahead.
Careless play by Junior Stanislas, who started in place of the suspended Ross Wallace, on half way allowed the visitors to break through Salim Kerkar and when he slipped the ball to Haynes, it took another fine stop by Grant to stop the striker from locating the far corner with an angled drive.
Kerkar then played a part again with a wonderful deep cross to Hulse at the far post but the striker elected to head back across goal rather than try to score himself, allowing Jason Shackell to block and clear the danger as the Clarets determinedly preserved their mean streak.
With the back four doing their job it was a case of the Clarets trying to nick one at the other end twice in the opening 15 minutes of the second half they had opportunities.
Both fell to Austin but this time the Championship’s October player of the month couldn’t add to his tally as he looked to score the seventh successive game at Turf Moor to equal the Clarets’ post-war record.
He did all the work himself for the first opening, robbing Egert Jonsson before steering a shot wide as he ran into the box.
And then when Marney, who didn’t look out of place in his temporary position, provided a decent cross, Austin didn’t get enough on his header to hit the target.
The Clarets had looked increasingly comfortable as they held a measure of control but with just over 20 minutes to go Charlton struck as Burnley’s defence was breached at Turf Moor for the first time since the start of October.
Former Preston striker Ricardo Fuller had been added to their attack, but it was the combination of Hulse and Haynes which did the damage as Hulse - perhaps fortunate to avoid censure for appearing to elbow Shackell earlier in the piece - nodded back a Jackson cross for Haynes to head home.
Dyche responded by sending on Danny Ings and then, with seven minutes to go, Sam Vokes as Burnley pushed for an equaliser.
But inevitably it was Austin who almost rescued a point from an Ings corner as both his initial header and follow-up effort were blocked in front of goal as he and the Clarets both drew a rare blank.
Burnley: Grant, Trippier, Lafferty (Edgar 78), Duff, Shackell, Stock, Marney, McCann, Austin, Paterson (Vokes 83), Stanislas (Ings 72): Subs: Vokes, Mills, Bartley, Stewart, Jensen.
Sent off: Trippier 15
Charlton: Hamer, Solly, Morrison, Cort, Seaborne, Kerkar, Pritchard, Jackson, Jonsson (Fuller 53), Haynes (Devite 86), Hulse (Taylor 90+2). Subs: Green, Wright-Phillips, Wagstaff, Button.
Booked: Jackson 80
Referee: Robert Madley.